Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

It is also called rectal cancer, colon cancer or bowel cancer. It is any cancer (a growth, lump, tumor) of the colon and the rectum.

Treatments for Colorectal Cancer

Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery:
Surgery for Colorectal Cancer
This is the most common colorectal cancer treatment. The affected malignant tumors and any lymph nodes that are nearby will be removed. Surgeons remove lymph nodes because they are the first place cancers tend to spread to.
The bowel is usually sewn back together. Sometimes, the rectum may need to be taken out completely. A colostomy bag is then attached for drainage. The colostomy bag collects stools and is generally placed temporarily. Sometimes it may be a permanent measure if it is not possible to join up the ends of the bowel.
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy involves using a medicine (chemical) to destroy the cancerous cells. It is commonly used for colon cancer treatment. It may be prior to surgery aiming to shrink the tumor.
Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy uses high energy radiation beams to destroy the cancer cells, and also to prevent them from multiplying. This treatment is more commonly used for rectal cancer treatment. It may be prior to surgery aiming to shrink the tumor.

Kidney Cancer

What Is Kidney Cancer?
Kidney cancer is a disease in which kidney cells become cancerous and grow out of control, forming a tumor. It is also called renal cancer. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma.

What Are the Treatments for Kidney Cancer?
For kidney cancer,there are many standard kinds of treatment. In most cases, surgery is the first step. Even if surgery removes the whole tumor, your doctor may propose an extra treatment to kill any remaining cancer cells that cannot be seen.

Surgery for Kidney Cancer

The type of surgery you need depends on how advanced your cancer is.

Radical nephrectomy removes the kidney, adrenal gland, and surrounding tissue. It also often removes nearby lymph nodes.
Simple nephrectomy removes the kidney only.
Partial nephrectomy removes the cancer in the kidney along with some tissue around it. This procedure is used for patients with smaller tumors or in those patients in which a radical nephrectomy might hurt the other kidney.

If surgery can’t remove your kidney cancer, your doctor may suggest another option to help destroy the tumor.

Cryotherapy uses extreme cold to kill the tumor.
Radiofrequency ablation uses high-energy radio waves to “cook” the tumor.
Arterial embolization involves inserting material into an artery that leads to the kidney. This blocks blood flow to the tumor. This procedure may be done to help shrink the tumor before surgery.

Biologic therapy for kidney cancer

To fight cancer, this mode of treatment utilizes your immune system by restoring, directing or boosting your body’s natural defenses. Substances for biologic therapy are made by your body or in a lab. Examples of biologic therapy for metastatic kidney cancer include interferon alpha or interleukin-2. There are several new immunotherapies being constantly studied for kidney cancer.

Targeted therapy for kidney cancer

To detect and target cancer cells with less toxicity to normal cells, this therapy uses drugs or other substances. One type of targeted therapy is anti-angiogenic agents. These keep blood vessels from feeding a tumor, causing it to shrink or stop growing. Another type of targeted agent is known as multikinase inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. These are oral drugs that close an enzyme pathway which allows cancer cells to grow. A third type of targeted therapy is called as m-TOR inhibitors. There are two of these drugs available, one oral and one by IV. They block a pathway which allows blood vessels to help tumor cells grow. Each of these drugs have a special place in the management of advanced kidney cancer.

Radiation therapy for kidney cancer

Frequently used to help with symptoms of kidney cancer or in patients who cannot have surgery. Tthis treatment uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or halt their growth. External radiation therapy sends radiation to the cancer from a machine outside the body.

Chemotherapy for kidney cancer

To kill cancer cells or to stop them from multiplying, this therapy uses drugs. Chemotherapy is mostly used for a certain type of kidney cancer in which there are spindle cells.

Leukemia Cancer

What Is Leukemia?
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. bllod cancer is categories into various types blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. usually more production of white blood cells lead to leukemia.

White bllod cells are a important part of your immune system. They defend your body from the attacks of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as from malignanat cells and other foreign substances. In leukemia, the WBCs don’t function like normal WBCs. They can also divide too rapidly and eventually destroy normal cells.

WBCs are mainly generated in the bone marrow, but some types of white blood cells are also produced in the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland. Once they are produced, WBCs spread throughout your body in your blood and lymph, concentrating in the lymph nodes.

The Types of Leukemia
The onset of leukemia can be acute or chronic. In acute leukemia, cancer cells multiply rapidly. In chronic leukemia, the disease progresses slowly and proir symptoms may be very delicate.

There are four main types of leukemia:

1.Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) can appear in children and adults. According to National Cancer Institute (NCI), about 18,000 peoples diagnosed annually in the United States.

2.Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) appers mostly in children. About 6,000 peoples are diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia annually.

3.Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are found mostly in adults. About 7,000 peoples are diagnosed annually.

4.Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is most likely to be found in people over the age of 55. It’s very rarely seen in children. About 15,000 peoples are diagnosed annually.

Risk Factors for Leukemia
The causes of leukemia are not known. However, various factors have been speculated which may increase your risk. These include:

a family history of leukemia
smoking, which increases your risk of developing AML
genetic disorders such as Down syndrome
blood disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, which sometimes called “preleukemia”
previous treatment for cancer with chemotherapy or radiation
exposure to high levels of radiation
exposure to chemicals such as benzene

What Are the Symptoms of Leukemia?
The symptoms of leukemia include:

excessive sweating, especially at night (called “night sweats”)
fatigue and weakness that don’t go away with rest
unintentional weight loss
bone pain and tenderness
painless, swollen lymph nodes (especially in the neck and armpits)
enlargement of the liver or spleen
red spots on the skin, called petechiae
bleeding and bruising easily
fever or chills
frequent infections

Leukemia can also cause symptoms in organs that have been invaded or affected by the cancer cells. For example, if the cancer invades to the central nervous system, it can cause headaches, nausea and vomiting, confusion, loss of muscle control, and seizures.

Diagnosing Leukemia
Leukemia may be diagnosed if you have certain risk factors, or symptoms. Your physician will begin with a complete history and physical inspection, but leukemia can’t be fully suspected by physical exam. Instead, physcians will use blood tests, biopsies, and imaging tests to diagnose you.

Tests
There are a various number of tests that can be used to diagnose leukemia. A complete blood count determines the numbers of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets in the blood. Looking at your blood with a microscope can also suspect if the cells have an malignant tumors.

Tissue inspection can be taken from the bone marrow or lymph nodes to look for trace of leukemia. These minor samples can determine the type of leukemia and its developing rate. Biopsies of other organs such as the liver and spleen can show if the cancer has circulated.

Treating Leukemia
Leukemia is mostly treated by a hematologist-oncologist. These are physcians who specialize in blood disorders and cancer. The treatment depends on the type and level of the cancer. Some forms of leukemia grow moderatley and don’t need quick treatment.