Endometrial Cancer

What is Endometrial Cancer?
Endometrial cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the lining of the uterus. The lining is called the endometrium. Endometrial cancer is also called cancer of the uterus, or uterine cancer.

What are the treatments?
Surgery to remove the uterus and cervix, ovaries, and Fallopian tubes (hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy).
Surgery to remove lymph nodes.
Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells.
Progestin hormone therapy to block cancer growth.
Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells.

Hysterectomy is the usual treatment for endometrial cancer. Hysterectomy is the surgery to remove the uterus. Out of all treatments for endometrial cancer, surgery has the highest cure rate.
Along with the uterus and cervix, the surgeon also removes the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and often the pelvic lymph nodes. If there are signs that more aggressive cancer still may be in the lymph system, more lymph nodes may be removed.
Surgery choices
Hysterectomy with removal of the Fallopian tubes and ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy)
Lymphadenectomy (removal of lymph nodes)

Throat Cancer

What is throat (larynx) cancer?
Throat cancer is a general term that usually refers to cancer of the pharynx and/or larynx. Regions included when considering throat cancer include the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, glottis, supraglottis and subglottis. About half of throat cancers develop in the larynx and the other half in the pharynx. Consequently, any cancers that develop in these regions of the throat are considered throat cancers.

What are the types of throat (larynx) cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma: Most common type of throat cancer
Adenocarcinoma: Cancer of glandular cells that release mucus
Other types that may occur rarely are:
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
Spindle cell carcinoma
Verrucous cancer
Undifferentiated carcinoma

What is the treatment for throat cancer?

Treatment aims to sustain the patient’s ability to eat, speak, and live a normal healthy life. Short descriptions of the major components for throat cancer therapy are as follows:
Surgery: There are many types of surgery for throat cancer, including minimally invasive, transoral laser microsurgery, endoscopic, laser, robotic, and tumor excision surgery, like supracricoid partial laryngectomy to allow more normal function in swallowing and speech without a stoma i.e. a surgically made opening in the neck that allows breathing.
Chemotherapy: These are drugs used to shrink tumors and/or kill cancer cells after surgery and/or radiation treatment. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with other therapies.
Radiation therapy: Brachytherapy involves placement of radioactive beads close to a tumor. 3-D radiation beam therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be tailored to the specific shape of the tumor.
Proton therapy: This radiation doses using pencil beam technology directed at the tumor while preserving nearby healthy tissue.
Targeted therapies: These drugs are used to stop the growth of cancer cells by interfering with proteins and/or other receptors on cancer cells.
Cancer clinical trials: This involves the use of experimental drugs or other methods that may show promise in survival and/or reduction in clinical symptoms.

Kidney Cancer

What Is Kidney Cancer?
Kidney cancer is a disease in which kidney cells become cancerous and grow out of control, forming a tumor. It is also called renal cancer. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma.

What Are the Treatments for Kidney Cancer?
For kidney cancer,there are many standard kinds of treatment. In most cases, surgery is the first step. Even if surgery removes the whole tumor, your doctor may propose an extra treatment to kill any remaining cancer cells that cannot be seen.

Surgery for Kidney Cancer

The type of surgery you need depends on how advanced your cancer is.

Radical nephrectomy removes the kidney, adrenal gland, and surrounding tissue. It also often removes nearby lymph nodes.
Simple nephrectomy removes the kidney only.
Partial nephrectomy removes the cancer in the kidney along with some tissue around it. This procedure is used for patients with smaller tumors or in those patients in which a radical nephrectomy might hurt the other kidney.

If surgery can’t remove your kidney cancer, your doctor may suggest another option to help destroy the tumor.

Cryotherapy uses extreme cold to kill the tumor.
Radiofrequency ablation uses high-energy radio waves to “cook” the tumor.
Arterial embolization involves inserting material into an artery that leads to the kidney. This blocks blood flow to the tumor. This procedure may be done to help shrink the tumor before surgery.

Biologic therapy for kidney cancer

To fight cancer, this mode of treatment utilizes your immune system by restoring, directing or boosting your body’s natural defenses. Substances for biologic therapy are made by your body or in a lab. Examples of biologic therapy for metastatic kidney cancer include interferon alpha or interleukin-2. There are several new immunotherapies being constantly studied for kidney cancer.

Targeted therapy for kidney cancer

To detect and target cancer cells with less toxicity to normal cells, this therapy uses drugs or other substances. One type of targeted therapy is anti-angiogenic agents. These keep blood vessels from feeding a tumor, causing it to shrink or stop growing. Another type of targeted agent is known as multikinase inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. These are oral drugs that close an enzyme pathway which allows cancer cells to grow. A third type of targeted therapy is called as m-TOR inhibitors. There are two of these drugs available, one oral and one by IV. They block a pathway which allows blood vessels to help tumor cells grow. Each of these drugs have a special place in the management of advanced kidney cancer.

Radiation therapy for kidney cancer

Frequently used to help with symptoms of kidney cancer or in patients who cannot have surgery. Tthis treatment uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or halt their growth. External radiation therapy sends radiation to the cancer from a machine outside the body.

Chemotherapy for kidney cancer

To kill cancer cells or to stop them from multiplying, this therapy uses drugs. Chemotherapy is mostly used for a certain type of kidney cancer in which there are spindle cells.