Cervical Cancer

What is cervical cancer?
When abnormal cells on the cervix become uncontrollable Cervical cancer occurs. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer can often be successfully treated when it’s found early. It is usually found at a very early stage through a Pap test.

Types of treatment

1. Surgery to remove the cancer. The kind of surgery required depends on the location and extent of cervical cancer and whether you want to have children.
2. Radiation therapy, which uses high-dose X-rays or implants in the vaginal cavity to kill cancer cells. It is used for certain stages of cervical cancer.
3. Chemoradiation, which is a combination of chemotherpay and radiation. This is often used to treat both early-stage and late-stage cervical cancer.
4. Chemotherapy, which uses medicines to kill cancer cells. It may be used to treat advanced cervical cancer.

Surgery choices

Surgery for very early stages of cervical cancer may preserve your ability to have children. Surgeries include:
Cone biopsy (conization) or Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure. This removes a wedge of cervical tissue that contains the cancer.
Radical trachelectomy. This removes the cervix, part of the vagina, and the pelvic lymph nodes. But the uterus is left in place.

Surgery for most stages of cervical cancer does not preserve your ability to have children. Surgeries include:
. Hysterectomy: This is surgery to remove the uterus and cervix. During this surgery, the ovaries and fallopian tubes may also be removed to reduce the chances of recurrence.
Radical Hysterectomy: This is surgery to remove the uterus, cervix, part of the vagina, and tissues around these organs. The ovaries, fallopian tubes, and nearby lymph nodes may also be removed.
Modified Radical Hysterectomy: This is surgery to remove the the uterus, cervix, upper part of the vagina, and tissues around these organs. But less tissue and fewer organs are removed than in a radical hysterectomy.
Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy: This is surgery to remove both ovaries and both fallopian tubes.
Pelvic Exenteration: This is the most serious pelvic surgery. It is done when cancer has spread throughout the lower belly and pelvis. In this surgery, the uterus, cervix, vagina, ovaries, lower colon, rectum, and bladder are removed. Artificial openings are created for urine and stool to move from the body into a collection bag. An artificial vagina can also be made during this surgery.

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