Thyroid Cancer

What is thyroid cancer?

DNA mutations that occur in response to an environmental exposure or exposure toxic substances or spontaneously can alter normal thyroid cells. The genetic changes cause the cells to multiply very rapidly without the normal controls found in the rest of the gland. Therefore. any of these cell types found in the thyroid gland can mutate into a specific type of cancer.

What are the different types of thyroid cancer?
Thyroid cancers are classified based upon which cell type is involved.
Well differentiated cancers include:
Papillary thyroid cancer: This is the most common type of thyroid cancer.
Hürthle cell carcinoma: This is a rare variant of papillary cancer also known as oncocytic carcinoma.
Follicular thyroid cancer: Follicular carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer.
Medullary thyroid cancer: This thyroid cancer type arises from the C cells in the thyroid.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer: This rare cancer involves thyroid cells which are very abnormal looking.
Lymphoma: This rare cancer is most often non-Hodkin’s B cell type.
Sarcoma: This type of thyroid cancer is very rare.

Surgery for Thyroid Cancer
Most thyroid cancers require surgery to remove the tumor.
Lobectomy: The thyroid has two lobes joined in the middle with a fibrous tissue bridge called the isthmus. If the tumor is confined to only a small area, the surgeon may just remove the affected lobe.
Total Thyroidectomy: This is the most common surgery for thyroid cancer and the goal is to completely remove the thyroid gland and hopefully ensure that the cancer will not recur.
Lymph node resection: Thyroid cancer can spread to local lymph nodes, and these nodes often are removed.
Open biopsy: A surgeon may operate to remove the nodule and send all the tissue for evaluation by a pathologist to make the diagnosis of cancer.

Prostate Cancer

What Is Prostate Cancer?

Cancer grows when cells in the body start to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can turn into cancer cells, and can attatck to other areas of the body.

Prostate cancer starts when cells in the prostate gland begin to develop uncontrollably. The prostate is a gland present only in males. It makes some of the fluid that is part of semen.

The prostate is benaeath the bladder and in front of the rectum. The magnitude of the prostate changes with age. In younger men, it is about the magnitude of a walnut, but it can be much larger in older men.

Just behind the prostate are glands called seminal vesicles that make maximum of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that transports urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the middle of the prostate.

Types of prostate cancer

Almost maximum prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers grows from the gland cells.

Other types of prostate cancer include:

Possible pre-cancerous conditions of the prostate

Some research suggests that prostate cancer grows out as a pre-cancerous condition, although this is not yet known for sure. These conditions are sometimes invetigated when a man has a prostate biopsy (removal of minor pieces of the prostate to investigate for cancer).

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)

In PIN, there are changes in how the prostate gland cells look beneath a microscope, but the abnormal cells don’t look like they are developing into other parts of the prostate (like cancer tumors would). Based on how abnormal the patterns of cells look, they are classified as:

Low-grade PIN: the patterns of prostate cells appear mostly normal
High-grade PIN: the patterns of cells look more unusual

PIN begins to be found in the prostates of some men as early as in their 20s.

Most of the men start to develop low-grade PIN when they are in young age but don’t certainly grow prostate cancer. The possible link between low-grade PIN and prostate cancer is still not found.

If high-grade PIN is identified in your prostate biopsy sample, there is about a 20% chance that you also have cancer present in another area of your prostate.

Endometrial Cancer

What is Endometrial Cancer?
Endometrial cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the lining of the uterus. The lining is called the endometrium. Endometrial cancer is also called cancer of the uterus, or uterine cancer.

What are the treatments?
Surgery to remove the uterus and cervix, ovaries, and Fallopian tubes (hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy).
Surgery to remove lymph nodes.
Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells.
Progestin hormone therapy to block cancer growth.
Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells.

Hysterectomy is the usual treatment for endometrial cancer. Hysterectomy is the surgery to remove the uterus. Out of all treatments for endometrial cancer, surgery has the highest cure rate.
Along with the uterus and cervix, the surgeon also removes the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and often the pelvic lymph nodes. If there are signs that more aggressive cancer still may be in the lymph system, more lymph nodes may be removed.
Surgery choices
Hysterectomy with removal of the Fallopian tubes and ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy)
Lymphadenectomy (removal of lymph nodes)