Kidney Cancer

What Is Kidney Cancer?
Kidney cancer is a disease in which kidney cells become cancerous and grow out of control, forming a tumor. It is also called renal cancer. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma.

What Are the Treatments for Kidney Cancer?
For kidney cancer,there are many standard kinds of treatment. In most cases, surgery is the first step. Even if surgery removes the whole tumor, your doctor may propose an extra treatment to kill any remaining cancer cells that cannot be seen.

Surgery for Kidney Cancer

The type of surgery you need depends on how advanced your cancer is.

Radical nephrectomy removes the kidney, adrenal gland, and surrounding tissue. It also often removes nearby lymph nodes.
Simple nephrectomy removes the kidney only.
Partial nephrectomy removes the cancer in the kidney along with some tissue around it. This procedure is used for patients with smaller tumors or in those patients in which a radical nephrectomy might hurt the other kidney.

If surgery can’t remove your kidney cancer, your doctor may suggest another option to help destroy the tumor.

Cryotherapy uses extreme cold to kill the tumor.
Radiofrequency ablation uses high-energy radio waves to “cook” the tumor.
Arterial embolization involves inserting material into an artery that leads to the kidney. This blocks blood flow to the tumor. This procedure may be done to help shrink the tumor before surgery.

Biologic therapy for kidney cancer

To fight cancer, this mode of treatment utilizes your immune system by restoring, directing or boosting your body’s natural defenses. Substances for biologic therapy are made by your body or in a lab. Examples of biologic therapy for metastatic kidney cancer include interferon alpha or interleukin-2. There are several new immunotherapies being constantly studied for kidney cancer.

Targeted therapy for kidney cancer

To detect and target cancer cells with less toxicity to normal cells, this therapy uses drugs or other substances. One type of targeted therapy is anti-angiogenic agents. These keep blood vessels from feeding a tumor, causing it to shrink or stop growing. Another type of targeted agent is known as multikinase inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. These are oral drugs that close an enzyme pathway which allows cancer cells to grow. A third type of targeted therapy is called as m-TOR inhibitors. There are two of these drugs available, one oral and one by IV. They block a pathway which allows blood vessels to help tumor cells grow. Each of these drugs have a special place in the management of advanced kidney cancer.

Radiation therapy for kidney cancer

Frequently used to help with symptoms of kidney cancer or in patients who cannot have surgery. Tthis treatment uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or halt their growth. External radiation therapy sends radiation to the cancer from a machine outside the body.

Chemotherapy for kidney cancer

To kill cancer cells or to stop them from multiplying, this therapy uses drugs. Chemotherapy is mostly used for a certain type of kidney cancer in which there are spindle cells.

Leukemia Cancer

What Is Leukemia?
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. bllod cancer is categories into various types blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. usually more production of white blood cells lead to leukemia.

White bllod cells are a important part of your immune system. They defend your body from the attacks of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as from malignanat cells and other foreign substances. In leukemia, the WBCs don’t function like normal WBCs. They can also divide too rapidly and eventually destroy normal cells.

WBCs are mainly generated in the bone marrow, but some types of white blood cells are also produced in the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland. Once they are produced, WBCs spread throughout your body in your blood and lymph, concentrating in the lymph nodes.

The Types of Leukemia
The onset of leukemia can be acute or chronic. In acute leukemia, cancer cells multiply rapidly. In chronic leukemia, the disease progresses slowly and proir symptoms may be very delicate.

There are four main types of leukemia:

1.Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) can appear in children and adults. According to National Cancer Institute (NCI), about 18,000 peoples diagnosed annually in the United States.

2.Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) appers mostly in children. About 6,000 peoples are diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia annually.

3.Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are found mostly in adults. About 7,000 peoples are diagnosed annually.

4.Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is most likely to be found in people over the age of 55. It’s very rarely seen in children. About 15,000 peoples are diagnosed annually.

Risk Factors for Leukemia
The causes of leukemia are not known. However, various factors have been speculated which may increase your risk. These include:

a family history of leukemia
smoking, which increases your risk of developing AML
genetic disorders such as Down syndrome
blood disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, which sometimes called “preleukemia”
previous treatment for cancer with chemotherapy or radiation
exposure to high levels of radiation
exposure to chemicals such as benzene

What Are the Symptoms of Leukemia?
The symptoms of leukemia include:

excessive sweating, especially at night (called “night sweats”)
fatigue and weakness that don’t go away with rest
unintentional weight loss
bone pain and tenderness
painless, swollen lymph nodes (especially in the neck and armpits)
enlargement of the liver or spleen
red spots on the skin, called petechiae
bleeding and bruising easily
fever or chills
frequent infections

Leukemia can also cause symptoms in organs that have been invaded or affected by the cancer cells. For example, if the cancer invades to the central nervous system, it can cause headaches, nausea and vomiting, confusion, loss of muscle control, and seizures.

Diagnosing Leukemia
Leukemia may be diagnosed if you have certain risk factors, or symptoms. Your physician will begin with a complete history and physical inspection, but leukemia can’t be fully suspected by physical exam. Instead, physcians will use blood tests, biopsies, and imaging tests to diagnose you.

Tests
There are a various number of tests that can be used to diagnose leukemia. A complete blood count determines the numbers of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets in the blood. Looking at your blood with a microscope can also suspect if the cells have an malignant tumors.

Tissue inspection can be taken from the bone marrow or lymph nodes to look for trace of leukemia. These minor samples can determine the type of leukemia and its developing rate. Biopsies of other organs such as the liver and spleen can show if the cancer has circulated.

Treating Leukemia
Leukemia is mostly treated by a hematologist-oncologist. These are physcians who specialize in blood disorders and cancer. The treatment depends on the type and level of the cancer. Some forms of leukemia grow moderatley and don’t need quick treatment.

Bladder Cancer

What is Bladder Cancer?
The inside, or lining, of the urinary bladder is composed of a layer of cells that protect the tissues beneath them from contact with urine. Occasionally, these cells start to multiply uncontrollably and form a growth or tumour. When found and treated in the early stages, cancerous bladder tumours are not likely to be life-threatening. In addition, treatment of most of these tumours does not require the removal of the urinary bladder.

What Are Bladder Cancer Treatments?
Urologists are surgeons who specialize in the management of disorders of the urinary system. Standard therapies for bladder cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy or biological therapy.
Surgery and radiation therapy are comparatively local therapies. This means that they get rid of cancer cells only in the treated area.
Chemotherapy is systemic therapy. This means that it can kill cancer cells almost anywhere in the body.
Immunotherapy is a local therapy. It involves a treatment placed into the bladder.

Radiation Therapy
Radiation is an invisible high-energy and painless ray that can destroy both cancer cells and normal cells in its path. New radiation treatments are able to focus radiation better and damage fewer normal cells. Radiation may be given for small muscle-invasive bladder cancers. It is commonly used as an alternative approach to or in addition to surgery, often in patients who may be too ill to undergo surgery. Either of two types of radiation can be used. However, for greatest therapeutic efficacy, it should be given in conjunction with chemotherapy:
External radiation is induced by a machine outside the body.
Internal radiation is given by many different techniques. Placing a small pellet of radioactive material inside the bladder is one such technique.
Unfortunately, radiation affects not only cancer cells but also any healthy tissues it touches. With external radiation, non-diseased tissue adjacent or overlying to the tumor can be harmed if the radiation cannot be focused enough.

What are the Types of Surgery that Treat Bladder Cancer?
Surgery is the most widely used treatment for bladder cancer. It is used for all types and stages of bladder cancer. Several different types of surgery are used. Which type is used in any situation depends largely on the stage of the tumor. Several surgical procedures are available today that have not obtained widespread acceptance. They can be difficult to perform, and good outcomes are best achieved by those who perform many of these surgeries per year. The types of surgery are as follows:
Transurethral Resection with Fulguration: In this operation, a resectoscope (an instrument) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A small wire loop on the tip of the instrument then removes the tumor by cutting it or burning it with electrical current (fulguration).
Radical Cystectomy: In this operation, the whole bladder is removed, along with its surrounding lymph nodes and other structures adjacent to the bladder that may carry cancerous cells.
If the urethra is involved with cancer, it may need to be removed along with the bladder. This process is known as radical cystectomy plus urethrectomy (cystourethrectomy).
Partial or Segmental Cystectomy: In this operation, a portion of the bladder is removed.
Removal of the bladder is complex because it needs creation of a new pathway for urine to be stored and to exit the body. There are a variety of different surgical procedures that can be performed. Some people wear a bag outside the body to collect urine, called noncontinent urinary diversion. Others have a little pouch made inside the body to collect urine, called continent urinary diversion.